Scenario #1: High school/ Middle School (grades 7-12) classroom: 25 students
Student is hearing impaired - Content: have lesson notes and other relevant materials available for download prior to the lesson. Another option is for the teacher to record relevant parts of lesson for the student to listen to on headphones if the student is only partially hearing impaired.
Student has ADHD - Affect: have the student sit at the front of the room to avoid potential distractions from other students. Keep interactions with the student continually positive and allow the student to take short frequent breaks.
Student has a reading disability - Process: have text-to-speech software available in the classroom. Give the student extra time on reading-heavy work. A fellow teacher in my school claims that using green paper rather than white helps students with dyslexia read with better fluency.
ELL Students - Product: Rather than lengthy written essays, students can turn in work in an outline format or as a powerpoint. If the students have an interest in art, the students could submit illustrated work in the style of a comic strip.